Learn Hindi Online

Lesson 8 - Postpositions II

In the previous lesson, we focused on how to add a postposition to pronouns and singular nouns. In this lesson we will learn how to add postpositions to plural nouns. We will also learn the contracted versions and how to add a post position to a pronoun-noun combination (e.g., to those people).

Plural Masculine Nouns

If a plural masculine noun ends in , then change the ending to ओं to add the postposition. For example, लड़के + का = लड़कों का. If a plural masculine noun does not end in , then simply add ओं when using a postposition. For example, घर + का = घरों का. Plural adjectives will not follow this pattern. Singular adjectives, however, that end in will inflect to if the noun or pronoun that they modify is followed by a postposition.

Plural Feminine Nouns

If a plural feminine noun ends in इयाँ, then change the ending to इयों to add the postposition. For example, लड़कियाँ + का = लड़कियों का. If a plural feminine noun ends in एँ, then change the ending to ओं when using a postposition. For example, किताबें + का = किताबों का.

Contracted Forms

When को is added to a pronoun, there may be other less formal ways to say it. You learned the formal way in Lesson 7. Here is a list of pronouns with को that can be contracted.

FormalCasualInformal
मुझकोमुझेमेरे को
तुझकोतुझेतेरे को
इसकोइसे
उसकोउसे
हमकोहमेंहमारे को
तुमकोतुम्हेंतुम्हारे को
इनकोइन्हें
उनकोउन्हें
किसकोकिसे
किनकोकिन्हें

Pronoun-Noun Combinations

Sometimes in English, we add a noun or a pronoun to a prepositional phrase for emphasis - to boy or to him can be made into to that boy. The same is done in Hindi. Notice that one word उसको can be separated to put the noun in the middle. लड़के को or उसको can be made into उस लड़के को. Note that an adjective can be added to and will inflect if it ends in .

this girl's - यह + लड़की + का = इस लड़की का

from those beautiful women - वे + सुन्दर + महिलाएँ + से = उन सुन्दर महिलाओं से

Vocabulary

peopleलोग m.personव्यक्ति m./f.
childबच्चा m./f.and, moreऔर
waterपानी m.orया
dirtyगंदाangryनाराज़
crazyपागलeverything, allसब
thinपतलाthick, fatमोटा
onlyसिर्फ़much, very, a lotबहुत

Examples

That girl tells everything to those boys.
वह लड़की उन लड़कों को सब बताती है।

That person talks with those angry, crazy people.
वह व्यक्ति उन नाराज़, पागल लोगों से बात करता है।

Don't give more dirty water to this child.
इस बच्चे को और गंदा पानी न दीजिये।

Take food or water.
खाना या पानी लो।

Is your brother thin or fat?
आपका भाई पतला या मोटा है?।

He reads many books.
वह बहुत किताबें पढ़ता है।

Only boys play cricket.
सिर्फ़ लड़के क्रिकेट खेलते हैं।