Learn Hindi Online

Lesson 7 - Postpositions I

The English prepositions (of, on, in, etc.) come before the noun (e.g., in India, of him). In Hindi, however, these words come after the noun they modify, so we call them postpositions. This lesson will show you how to use postpositions.

Inflections

When prepositions are used in English, often the pronoun is inflected (e.g., I to me, they to them). If a noun, pronoun, or an adjective ends in and is modified by a postposition, each one must be inflected to (excluding names, of course). लड़का when followed by a postposition will change to लड़के (singular). बड़ा लड़का when followed by a postposition will change to बड़े लड़के (also singular). Plural nouns followed by postpositions will be covered in Lesson 8. None of the pronouns in Hindi end in , but they are uniquely inflected as shown in the table below.

काकोसेमेंपर
मैंमेरामुझकोमुझसेमुझमेंमुझपर
तूतेरातुझकोतुझसेतुझमेंतुझपर
यहइसकाइसकोइससेइसमेंइसपर
वहउसकाउसकोउससेउसमेंउसपर
हमहमाराहमकोहमसेहममेंहमपर
तुमतुम्हारातुमकोतुमसेतुममेंतुमपर
आपआपकाआपकोआप सेआप मेंआप पर
येइनकाइनकोइनसेइनमेंइनपर
वेउनकाउनकोउनसेउनमेंउसपर
कौन (s.)किसकाकिसकोकिससेकिसमेंकिसपर
कौन (pl.)किनकाकिनकोकिनसेकिनमेंकिनपर
कोईकिसी काकिसी कोकिसी से किसी मेंकिसी पर

Using का

This shows ownership. From the table above, मैं + का = मेरा - my. A noun or pronoun plus का is used as an adjective. This means that it goes before the noun and that it inflects to agree with the noun with the same rules show in Lesson 6. Of these postpositions, this is the only one that can be inflected. Keep in mind, that though this is the only one that can be inflected, all postpositions cause inflection to the nouns, pronouns, and adjectives that they modify.

my house - मेरा घर

their boys - उनके लड़के

Using को

The best literal meaning of को is to. More uses will be explained when learning passive sentence construction.

Give the book to me. - मुझको किताब दीजिये।

Tell (to) her now. - अब उसको बताइये।

Using से

से is best translated to from. Sometimes it also means with, by, or to. When using verbs about conversation (e.g., talk, speak, ask, request, tell, invite, call, etc.), से or को will be used. Just as in English, you must learn which postposition is paired with which verb. More on this in the lessons to come.

Take food from her. - उससे खाना लो।

He speaks to you. - वह तुमसे बोलता है।

Using में

में is best translated to in. Sometimes it also means during or while when added to gerunds (covered later).

A pen is in my pocket. - मेरी जेब में क़लम है।

I am in a store. - मैं दुकान में हूँ।

Using पर

पर is best translated to on. Sometimes it also means at when talking about places and times.

A pen is on the book. - क़लम किताब पर है।

The boys are at home. - लड़के घर पर हैं।

Vocabulary

tableमेज़ f.floorफ़र्श m.
roomकमरा m.streetसड़क f.
motherमाता, माता जी f.fatherपिता, पिता जी m.
brotherभाई m.sisterबहन f.
sonबेटा m.daughterबेटी f.
friendदोस्त m./f.to talkबात करना

Examples

Who's book is this?
यह किसकी किताब है?

The dog comes in the house.
कुत्ता घर में आता है।

The table is on the floor.
मेज़ फ़र्श पर है।

My son's friend goes in the street.
मेरे बेटे का दोस्त सड़क में जाता है।

My mom's house is there.
मेरी माता का घर वहाँ है।

Give (to) me my brother's friend's book.
मुझको मेरे भाई के दोस्त की किताब दीजिये।

Talk to my sister in my father's room.
मेरे पिता के कमरे में मेरी बहन से बात करो।

What is your name?
आपका नाम क्या है?

My name is Pankaj.
मेरा नाम पंकज है।