In this lesson, you will learn how to conjugate verbs into simple present tense, also called habitual present tense. Then you will be able to say sentences like I speak Hindi or I go.
All Hindi verbs in the infinitive form end in ना. Verbs have two parts: the root and the ending. The root of the verb to speak is बोल and the ending in the infinitive form is ना. In order to conjugate a verb into simple present tense, you must take off the ना and add the appropriate ending from the table below. Then you add what is called the present time marker (also in table below) learned in Present Tense of Hona.
Note that in the table below that when speaking in the simple present tense, the verb agrees with the subject (not the object) in both gender and number. When the subject is feminine (singular or plural), the verb will end in ती. When the subject is masculine singular, the verb will end in ता . When the subject is masculine plural, the verb will end in ते.
|I speak||मैं बोलता हूँ||मैं बोलती हूँ|
|you speak (informal)||तू बोलता है||तू बोलती है|
|you speak||तुम बोलते हो||तुम बोलती हो|
|you speak (formal)||आप बोलते हैं||आप बोलती हैं|
|he, she, it speaks||वह बोलता है||वह बोलती है|
|we speak||हम बोलते हैं||हम बोलती हैं|
|they speak||वे बोलते हैं||वे बोलती हैं|
Here are a few simple English sentences that would require the simple present tense in Hindi. Notice that they all seem habitual.
He goes to the store in the mornings.
I eat food with my hands.
She walks quickly.
I enjoy swimming.
The Hindi word for no is नहीं. This is the word that is used to negate simple present tense verbs. To negate a simple present tense verb, put नहीं just before the verb.
I don't speak English. - मैं अंग्रेज़ी नहीं बोलता हूँ।
The present time marker at the end can be omitted (it is optional):
I don't speak English. - मैं अंग्रेज़ी नहीं बोलता।
|English||अंग्रेज़ी f.||to come||आना|
|to read||पढ़ना||to go||जाना|
|to speak||बोलना||to tell||बताना|
|to want||चाहना||to think||सोचना|
मैं बताता हूँ।
You (formal) read a book.
आप किताब पढ़ते हैं।
You (less formal) read a book.
तुम किताब पढ़ते हो।
You (informal) read a book.
तू किताब पढ़ता है।
She (far) goes.
वह जाती है।
He (near) comes.
यह आता है।
We read Hindi.
हम हिन्दी पढ़ते हैं।
They (far) want a dog.
वे कुत्ता चाहते हैं।
They (near) want a book.
ये किताब चाहते हैं।